Financial trading is executed in the financial markets. Financial securities, commodities and other items are sold and bought through financial trading in the financial markets. In India the prominent financial markets and NSE and BSE. There are several financial markets such as stock markets, bond markets, capital markets, commodity market, foreign exchange market etc.
Financial regulation refers to a system of regulation with certain standard systems and guidelines which aims to maintain the integrity of a financial system. Financial regulation is used to maintain the stability and confidence of a market, to protect and secure the consumers and arrest financial crimes.
A financial instrument is a tradable asset used to receive or deliver cash. Financial instruments are divided as cash instruments and derivative instruments. Cash instruments value is determined by the market and the derivative instruments value is determined by entities such as asset, index or interest rate.
Personal finance is related to the finance management of a family unit related to savings, budget and monetary spending keeping in mind the future financial risks. Financial planning is the key process to personal finance which involves continuous monitoring and reevaluation.
Banks and banking
Bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits through loaning or capital market. Banks follow with economy and financial system and operate under fractional reserve banking reserved with small deposits of funds. Bank are a source of depositing money, they collect and deposit money from the customers, issue checks, maintain current account and saving accounts and provides loans.
Public finance is related to the government’s role in economy. Public finance relates to revenue as well as the expenditure of the government by the authorities of public. Public finance is related to the effects of the government on efficient distribution of income, macroeconomic stabilization as well as allocation of resources. The government plays a vital role in the analysis of public finance.
Corporate finance relates to the funding at the corporate level, the corporate strategies adopted to increase the wealth and value of the company and analyze proper fund allocation. Maximization of the value of the share holder is the main aim of the corporate finance by finding on the investments which give good future returns. Any surplus cash needs to be used for the payment of dividends and share holders.
International standards are developed by the international standard organizations available for worldwide usage. They are used in international commerce to deal with the technical barriers which arise as a result of convergence of different groups.
The study of economics is known as economic history. Economic history relates to social history, business history and financial history. A combination of several methods such as statistical methods, commercial methods and economic theory are used in economic history.
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